In 1868, the Borough of Alexandria was formed, after separating from Waterloo. The former Alexandria Town Hall is in Garden Street. Land for the building was acquired in 1879; the building was designed by Ferdinand Reuss Snr and completed in 1881. Major alterations took place over the years, right up to 1928. The building is listed on the State Heritage Register.
By 1943, Alexandria was the largest industrial district in Australia, and known as the “Birmingham of Australia”, with everything from bricks to aeroplanes manufactured in 550 factories in just 1,000 acres (4.0 km2). The municipality was abolished upon merger into the City of Sydney in 1949, along with Darlington, Erskineville, Newtown, Redfern, Waterloo, Paddington and Glebe.
In 1968 the boundaries were changed again and Alexandria was part of a new municipality, South Sydney Council. South Sydney was brought back into the City of Sydney in 1982 and then became separate again under the City of Sydney Act of 1988. In 2004, Alexandria moved back into the City of Sydney, when the City of Sydney was merged with the City of South Sydney. .